Giving It Away

Good-bye to National Kidney Month and a belated hello to National Donor Month. I don’t usually write about transplants and don’t know that much about them, so you and I will be learning together today. Restricting this blog to solely kidney transplants, there’s still quite a bit to write about. 

There are many reasons for needing a kidney transplant. The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services’s Health Resources & Services Administration’s Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network provides the following list of reasons: 

Kidney Diagnosis Categories>Kidney Diagnoses
GLOMERULAR DISEASESAnti-GBM; Chronic Glomerulonephritis: Unspecified; Chronic Glomerulosclerosis: Unspecified; Focal Glomerularsclerosis; Idio/Post-Inf Crescentic; Glomerulonephritis; IGA Nephropathy; Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome; Membranous Glomerulonephritis; Mesangio-Capillary 1 Glomerulonephritis; Mesangio-Capillary 2 Glomerulonephritis; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Alport’s Syndrome; Amyloidosis; Membranous Nephropathy; Goodpasture’s Syndrome; Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura; Sickle Cell Anemia; Wegeners Granulomatosis
DIABETESDiabetes: Type I Insulin Dep/Juvenile Onset; Diabetes: Type II Insulin Dep/Adult Onset; Diabetes: Type I Non-insulin Dep/Juv Onset; Diabetes: Type II Non-insulin Dep/Adult Onset
POLYCYSTIC KIDNEYSPolycystic Kidneys
HYPERTENSIVE NEPHROSCLEROSISHypertensive Nephrosclerosis
RENOVASCULAR AND OTHER VASCULAR DISEASESChronic Nephrosclerosis: Unspecified; Malignant Hypertension; Polyarteritis; Progressive Systemic Sclerosis; Renal Artery Thrombosis; Scleroderma
CONGENITAL, RARE FAMILIAL, AND METABOLIC DISORDERSCongenital Obstructive Uropathy; Cystinosis; Fabry’s Disease; Hypoplasia/Dysplasia/Dysgenesis/Agenesis; Medullary Cystic Disease; Nephrophthisis; Prune Belly Syndrome
TUBULAR AND INTERSTITIAL DISEASESAcquired Obstructive Nephropathy; Analgesic Nephropathy; Antibiotic-induced Nephritis; Cancer Chemotherapy-Induced Nephritis; Chronic Pyelonephritis/Reflex; Nephropathy; Gout; Nephritis; Nephrolithiasis; Oxalate Nephropathy; Radiation Nephritis; Acute Tubular Necrosis; Cortical Necrosis; Cyclosporin Nephrotoxicity; Heroin Nephrotoxicity; Sarcoidosis; Urolithiasis
NEOPLASMSIncidental Carcinoma; Lymphoma; Myeloma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Wilms’ Tumor
RETRANSPLANT/GRAFT FAILURERetransplant/Graft Failure
OTHEROther Rheumatoid Arthritis; Other Familial Nephropathy

Quite a few of these reasons should look familiar to you if you’ve been reading the blog regularly since I’ve written about them. You can use the topics dropdown to the right of the blog if you’d like to refresh your memory about specific reasons. 

Let’s take a look at some astounding numbers. Unfortunately, The National Kidney Foundation could only offer statistics from 2014. Very few sources separate donations specifically by organ, so we’re lucky to have even these older numbers.  

“There are currently 121,678 people waiting for lifesaving organ transplants in the U.S. Of these, 100,791 await kidney transplants. (as of 1/11/16) … 

The median wait time for an individual’s first kidney transplant is 3.6 years and can vary depending on health, compatibility and availability of organs … 

In 2014, 17,107 kidney transplants took place in the US. Of these, 11,570 came from deceased donors and 5,537 came from living donors… 

On average: 

Over 3,000 new patients are added to the kidney waiting list each month… 

13 people die each day while waiting for a life-saving kidney transplant… 

Every 14 minutes someone is added to the kidney transplant list… 

In 2014, 4,761 patients died while waiting for a kidney transplant. Another, 3,668 people became too sick to receive a kidney transplant… “ 

Fewer kidney transplants are being performed during the current pandemic. The American Kidney Fund explains why: 

“Because living-donor kidney transplants require two hospital beds and post-surgical recovery care in the hospital, we are hearing that a growing number of transplant centers are temporarily putting living-donor transplants on hold. This both preserves the availability of hospital beds for emergencies and COVID-19 patients, and also keeps non-infected people out of the hospital…. 

The coronavirus spreads easily from person to person, and can be spread by people who do not show symptoms of COVID-19. This puts anyone who has a compromised immune system—including transplant patients who take immunosuppressive drugs—at an increased risk of becoming infected. 
 
Even with social distancing, the virus is still spreading in communities. Newly transplanted patients would be especially vulnerable during their recovery period after transplant surgery. 
 
Another obstacle hospitals face is the need to test deceased donors for the coronavirus. Transplanting an organ from a coronavirus-positive patient could present a grave risk to the recipient. With limited test kits needed for living patients, and the lag time between testing and getting results, some hospitals may have to forgo testing—and procuring organs from—deceased donors…. 

Because COVID-19 is a serious respiratory illness, the most critical patients must be put on ventilators. Ventilators are normally used to keep an organ donor patient alive who is medically brain-dead so that their organs may be removed and transplanted. Those ventilators may be needed for COVID-19 patients instead….” 

Fewer transplants or not, I was curious about how it’s decided who is eligible for a kidney transplant. Nebraska Medicine had the answer in simple terms we can all understand: 

“In order to be eligible to receive a kidney transplant: 

You must have chronic irreversible kidney disease that has not responded to other medical or surgical treatments. You are either on dialysis or may require dialysis in the near future. 

You must qualify for and be able to tolerate major surgery. 

You and your family members/support system must be able to understand the risks and benefits of transplantation, including the long-term need for close medical follow-up and lifelong need for anti-rejection therapy. 

You and your family must be able to accept the responsibilities, including financial, that are part of the long-term care you will need after transplantation. 

Exclusion 

You may not be eligible to receive a kidney transplant due to: 

The presence of some other life-threatening disease or condition that would not improve with transplantation. This could include certain cancers, infections that cannot be treated or cured, or severe, uncorrectable heart disease. 

A history of chronic noncompliance including, but not limited to, medical treatments, medications or other behaviors that would affect your ability to fully care for yourself after transplantation. 

A history of chronic and ongoing drug and/or alcohol abuse that cannot be successfully treated before transplantation, putting you at risk for continued harmful behavior after transplantation. 

A history of serious psychiatric disorders that cannot be successfully treated before transplantation, and that would be considered a high risk for ongoing or increased severity of the psychiatric disorder after transplantation.” 

Note: Weight is included in your tolerability for major surgery. 

There’s so much more to write about re kidney transplant. Next week, we’ll talk about the process itself. 

Until next week, 

Keep living your life! 

A New Year, New Kidney Disease Information

Happy New Year! Or, at least, that’s what I’m hoping for. I fervently believe the more you know, the better you can handle whatever’s happening in your world. That’s why, today, I’m exploring yet another term pertaining to kidney disease that I hadn’t been aware of. Oh my, how many, many types of kidney disease am I (and possibly you) unaware of?  

This one is membranous glomerulonephritis. I sort of-maybe-suspected what it might be, but I wanted to know for sure so I turned to Healthline – who bestowed a couple of awards on this blog a few years ago – at https://www.healthline.com/health/membranous-nephropathy for something more in the way of a definition. 

“Your kidneys are made up of a number of different structures that aid in the removal of wastes from your blood and the formation of urine. Glomerulonephritis (GN) is a condition in which changes in the structures of your kidney can cause swelling and inflammation. 

Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a specific type of GN. MGN develops when inflammation of your kidney structures causes problems with the functioning of your kidney. MGN is known by other names, including extramembranous glomerulonephritis, membranous nephropathy, and nephritis.” 

It’s hard to know where to start in exploring this disease. Let’s take the easy way and start with a definition of nephritis from… ta da, you guessed it – my all-time favorite dictionary, the Merriam Webster at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/nephritis.  

“acute or chronic inflammation of the kidney caused by infection, degenerative process, or vascular disease” 

I’m going back to the beginning of my blog journey to What Is It and How Did I Get It? Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease for the following definitions. 

“Acute: Extremely painful, severe or serious, quick onset, of short duration; the opposite of chronic. 

 Chronic: Long term; the opposite of acute.” 

By the way, you can click on the title of the book if you’re interested in purchasing it from Amazon. 

So, basically, nephritis means a kidney problem. But membranous glomerulonephritis is something more specific in that it is a kind of GN or glomerulonephritis. Back to the dictionary for the definition of glomerulonephritis: 

“acute or chronic nephritis that involves inflammation of the capillaries of the renal glomeruli, has various causes (such as streptococcal infection, lupus, or vasculitis) or may be of unknown cause, and is marked especially by blood or protein in the urine and by edema, and if untreated may lead to kidney failure” 

Ah, so now we know what part of the kidneys are involved. Do you remember what the glomeruli are? Just in case you don’t, here’s how ‘s Lexicon at https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/glomerulus  defines this plural noun: 

“a cluster of nerve endings, spores, or small blood vessels, in particular a cluster of capillaries around the end of a kidney tubule, where waste products are filtered from the blood.” 

Now we’re getting somewhere. Let’s keep digging. Membranous glomerulonephritis is a specific GN. I went directly to MedlinePlus, which is part of the National Institutes of Health, which in turn is part of The U.S. National Library of Medicine at https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000472.htm

“Membranous nephropathy is caused by the thickening of a part of the glomerular basement membrane. The glomerular basement membrane is a part of the kidneys that helps filter waste and extra fluid from the blood. The exact reason for this thickening is not known. 

The thickened glomerular membrane does not work normally. As a result, large amounts of protein are lost in the urine. 

This condition is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome. This is a group of symptoms that include protein in the urine, low blood protein level, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and swelling. Membranous nephropathy may be a primary kidney disease, or it may be associated with other conditions. 

The following increase your risk for this condition: 

Cancers, especially lung and colon cancer 

Exposure to toxins, including gold and mercury 

Infections, including hepatitis B, malaria, syphilis, and endocarditis 

Medicines, including penicillamine, trimethadione, and skin-lightening creams 

Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders 

The disorder occurs at any age, but is more common after age 40.” 

Being only a bit more than a year out from cancer, I was getting nervous so I went to the National Kidney Foundation at https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/membranous-nephropathy-mn for a list of symptoms. 

“Swelling in body parts like your legs, ankles and around your eyes (called edema) 

Weight gain 

Fatigue 

Foaming of the urine caused by high protein levels in the urine (called proteinuria) 

High fat levels in the blood (high cholesterol) 

Low levels of protein in the blood” 

These symptoms struck me as so common that I wanted to know just how usual membranous glomerulonephritis was. After checking numerous sites, the consensus I found was that this is not a common disease. Thank goodness! 

Even though it’s not common, we still might want to know what to do if we were diagnosed with membranous glomerulonephritis, especially since I discovered that this may be considered an autoimmune disease. This is how the Mayo Clinic suggested the disease be treated: 

“Treatment of membranous nephropathy [Gail here: That’s a synonym for membranous glomerulonephritis.] focuses on addressing the cause of your disease and relieving your symptoms. There is no certain cure. 

However, up to three out of 10 people with membranous nephropathy have their symptoms completely disappear (remission) after five years without any treatment. About 25 to 40 percent have a partial remission. 

In cases where membranous nephropathy is caused by a medication or another disease — such as cancer — stopping the medication or controlling the other disease usually improves the condition.” 

There is much more detailed treatment information on their website at mayoclinic.in/354QFPU.    

That is a bit more reassuring. Thank you to all the readers who use terms I hadn’t heard of before and/or ask questions about topics that are new to me. May this year be kinder to us than the last one. 

Until next week, 

Keep living your life! 

It Isn’t  Ain’t; It’s AIN.  

I’ll explain that in a minute, but first – on this Labor Day weekend – I want to thank all the readers who have liked individual blogs. These likes let me know I’m writing about topics that interest you.

Let’s turn to AIN now.  You know it’s not just a word, but an acronym. That’s a word formed by the initials of a term, like ASAP for as soon as possible. By the way, ‘nym’ means name, while ‘acr’ means height, summit, tip, top.  ‘O’ connects the two roots. So, we have the tip of the words or the first letters forming an acronym which becomes a recognized word. Thank you to my college course in Greek and Latin roots. I knew that would come on handy someday and it has again and again.

Well, what does AIN mean? It is the acronym for Allergic Interstitial Nephritis, which is a mouthful itself. ‘Allergic’ we get. That’s a common enough word. ‘Interstitial’, though? I remember the prefix (group of related words before the root word that changes its meaning) ‘inter’ means between, but between what? Merriam-Webster Dictionary at https://bit.ly/3h3cF0H, here we come.

asituated within but not restricted to or characteristic of a particular organ or tissue —used especially of fibrous tissue

 baffecting the interstitial tissues of an organ or part

I wonder if we’ll need both definitions. I think we need to be reminded of what nephritis is before we can tell. Again, I remember from that college course so very long ago (Funny what sticks in your mind, isn’t it?) that ‘itis’ means inflammation. We know from all the writings about Chronic Kidney Disease that ‘neph’ means kidneys. Putting these together, we have inflammation of the kidneys. Let’s take a look at my favorite dictionary again, just to be certain.

Yep, there we have it at www.merriam-webster/dictionary/nephritis:

“acute or chronic inflammation of the kidney caused by infection, degenerative process, or vascular disease”

How do you define the whole term? According the excerpt from Nancy A. Finnigan and Khalid Bashir’s book Statpearls on NCBI’s bookshelf at https://bit.ly/31ZTeS2,

“Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is the most common form of acute interstitial nephritis. It is most often caused by exposure to a drug. AIN is often associated with an acute decline in renal function and may be associated with permanent renal insufficiency.”

Acute? Oh, yes. That’s means sudden. It’s the opposite of chronic, which means long term. Looks like we only needed the second dictionary definition of interstitial after all.

So, this kind of nephritis is usually caused by drugs? Which drugs? I went to UpToDate at https://bit.ly/3i4exHS for the answer:

“The most common drug causes of AIN now include …:

  • Nonsteroidalanti-inflammatoryagents (NSAIDs), including selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors
  • Penicillinsand cephalosporins
  • Rifampin
  • Antimicrobial sulfonamides, including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
  • Ciprofloxacin and,perhaps toa lesser degree, other quinolones
  • Diuretics, including loop diuretics such as furosemide and bumetanide, and thiazide-type diuretics
  • Cimetidine (only rare cases have been described with other H-2 blockers such as ranitidine) [24,25]
  • Allopurinol
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) such as omeprazole and lansoprazole [26-29]
  • Indinavir
  • 5-aminosalicylates (eg, mesalamine)”

There are some very common drugs on this list. As Chronic Kidney Disease patients, we are warned away from NSAIDS. I’ve been warned about Ciprofloxacin, too, and PPIs, but diuretics? Most of the other drugs we’d have to ask our doctors about when and if they’re prescribed. Then again, I ask my family doctor to check the effect of the drug on the kidneys when she prescribes a drug. She happily does so.

You should note that many of these drugs do not require a prescription. In that case, speak with your pharmacist about its possible effect on your kidneys before buying any over the counter drug. Another possibility is using Drugs.com or a similar website for possible effects on your kidneys before using any drugs.

What are the symptoms, if any, of AIN? Well, much like Chronic Kidney Disease, there are often no symptoms until it is quite advanced. Then you would notice the acute drop in kidney function. A blood test and urine test will help with the diagnosis, although the urine test will only show the presence of white blood cells. That indicates an infection. Sometimes a kidney biopsy is required to diagnose AIN.

And now the biggie: what do you do if you develop AIN? You stop the medication. It’s common sense. Your doctor will probably suggest that once it’s been determined you have allergic interstitial nephritis. Remember though, there are other causes of AIN such as infections and/or autoimmunity.

Topic switch: While I’ve been laboring over this blog, I’ve also been thinking about the fact that today is Labor Day in the United States. Coming from a union family, I thought I’d tell you a little bit about Labor Day that you may not know.

This, and more information about Labor Day, may be found at https://bit.ly/3jPeaRR

“In the late 1800s, the state of labor was grim as U.S. workers toiled under bleak conditions: 12 or more hour workdays; hazardous work environments; meager pay. Children, some as young as 5, were often fixtures at plants and factories.

The dismal livelihoods fueled the formation of the country’s first labor unions, which began to organize strikes and protests and pushed employers for better hours and pay. Many of the rallies turned violent.

On Sept. 5, 1882 — a Tuesday — 10,000 workers took unpaid time off to march in a parade from City Hall to Union Square in New York City as a tribute to American workers. Organized by New York’s Central Labor Union, It [sic]was the country’s first unofficial Labor Day parade. Three years later, some city ordinances marked the first government recognition, and legislation soon followed in a number of states.”

As many of you already know, my grandfather was an organizer for the Brass Workers Union. Many a time he’d disappear. He was jailed for his activities, but that didn’t stop him.

As you labor to avoid AIN and keep your kidneys functioning properly, enjoy the holiday weekend.

Until next week,

Keep living your life!

Two or More

Time for another reader question, but first, let’s pay attention to what day today is. Many people see today as the day for bar-b-ques or backyard ball games (or, at least, they did before Covid 19). When I married Bear a little more than seven years ago, he explained about Memorial Day. I knew it was to honor those who died protecting us, but it was so much more meaningful when explained by a veteran… someone who didn’t die protecting us and lived on to meet me and marry me. So give some quiet thoughts to these men and woman today, will you?

Now, the question. This reader has both lupus like immune mediated glomerular nephritis and Wegeners vasculitis with kidney involvement. Her question is how does she handle both?  And, here I thought I had it bad with pancreatic cancer (now gone), Chronic Kidney Disease, diabetes, and a whole host of what I consider lesser diseases!

Starting slowly is a must here since I am like a fish out of water with these two diseases. According to the MayoClinic at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351088,

”Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is an uncommon disorder that causes inflammation of the blood vessels in your nose, sinuses, throat, lungs and kidneys.

Formerly called Wegener’s granulomatosis, this condition is one of a group of blood vessel disorders called vasculitis. It slows blood flow to some of your organs. The affected tissues can develop areas of inflammation called granulomas, which can affect how these organs work.

Early diagnosis and treatment of granulomatosis with polyangiitis might lead to a full recovery. Without treatment, the condition can be fatal.”

Whoa! Not good. Let’s see how it’s treated. The Cleveland Clinic at https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/4757-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-gpa-formerly-called-wegeners/management-and-treatment tells us,

“People with GPA who have critical organ system involvement are generally treated with corticosteroids [Gail here: commonly just called steroids] combined with another immunosuppressive medication such as cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan ®) or rituximab (Rituxan®). In patients who have less severe GPA, corticosteroids and methotrexate can be used initially. The goal of treatment is to stop all injury that is occurring as a result of GPA. If disease activity can be completely ‘turned off,’ this is called ‘remission.’ Once it is apparent that the disease is improving, doctors slowly reduce the corticosteroid dose and eventually hope to discontinue it completely. When cyclophosphamide is used, it is only given until the time of remission (usually around 3 to 6 months), after which time it is switched to another immunosuppressive agent, such as methotrexate, azathioprine (Imuran®), or mycophenolate mofetil (Cellcept®) to maintain remission. The treatment duration of the maintenance immunosuppressive medication may vary between individuals. In most instances, it is given for a minimum of 2 years before consideration is given to slowly reduce the dose toward discontinuation.”

Okay, got it. Now let’s take a look at lupus like immune mediated glomerular nephritis. MedicineNet at https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=8064 reminds us about lupus:

Lupus: A chronic inflammatory disease that is caused by autoimmunity. Patients with lupus have in their blood unusual antibodies that are targeted against their own body tissues. Lupus can cause disease of the skin, heartlungs, kidneys, joints, and nervous system. The first symptom is a red (or dark), scaly rash on the nose and cheeks, often called a butterfly rash because of its distinctive shape. As inflammation continues, scar tissue may form, including keloid scarring in patients prone to keloid formation. The cause of lupus is unknown, although heredity, viruses, ultraviolet light, and drugs may all play a role. Lupus is more common in women than in men, and although it occurs in all ethnic groups, it is most common in people of African descent. Diagnosis is made through observation of symptoms, and through testing of the blood for signs of autoimmune activity. Early treatment is essential to prevent progression of the disease. A rheumatologist can provide treatment for lupus, and this treatment has two objectives: treating the difficult symptoms of the disease and treating the underlying autoimmune activity. It may include use of steroids [Gail here: Remember they’re used in treating this reader’s other disease, too.] and other anti-inflammatory agents, antidepressants and/or mood stabilizers, intravenous immunoglobulin, and, in cases in which lupus involves the internal organs, chemotherapy.

But our reader has lupus LIKE immune mediated glomerular nephritis, so she may need to deal with the symptoms, but not the treatment. Wikipedia at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune-mediated_inflammatory_diseases informs us,

“An immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) is any of a group of conditions or diseases that lack a definitive etiology, but which are characterized by common inflammatory pathways leading to inflammation, and which may result from, or be triggered by, a dysregulation of the normal immune response. All IMIDs can cause end organ damage, and are associated with increased morbidity and/or mortality.”

That’s as close as I could get to the definition of immune mediated.  We know that glomerular means of or about the glomerulus. Dictionary.com at https://www.dictionary.com/browse/glomerular helped me out here:

“Also called Malpighian tuft. a tuft of convoluted capillaries in the nephron of a kidney, functioning to remove certain substances from the blood before it flows into the convoluted tubule.”

And nephritis? After a decade of writing this blog, we probably all know that’s an inflammation of the nephrons.

Let’s combine the pieces to see what we get.  The nephron’s glomeruli are inflamed in the same way lupus inflames the organs. Remember that GPA also causes inflammation. (By the way, this is the perfect point in the blog to remind you I am not a doctor and have never claimed to be one.)

But how is it treated? Here’s where I admit defeat. There is quite a bit of information available on Lupus, Lupus Nephritis, and the like. But I could not find anything that includes ‘Lupus like.’

The commonality between the two diseases seems to be inflammation. But isn’t that at the root of all Chronic Kidney Disease? I admit to being surprised twice while writing this particular blog:

  • GPA was called by its older name by the doctor.
  • The dearth of treatment information for lupus like immune mediated glomerular nephritis.

Until next week,

Keep living your life!

Nephritis without the Lupus


Recently, I wrote about Lupus Nephritis. As one reader pointed out, it is possible to have Nephritis without Lupus. Let’s take a look at how that works.

According to MedicalNewsToday at https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/312579.php,

“Nephritis is a condition in which the nephrons, the functional units of the kidneys, become inflamed. This inflammation, which is also known as glomerulonephritis, can adversely affect kidney function.

The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that filter the blood circulating the body to remove excess water and waste products from it.

There are many types of nephritis with a range of causes. While some types occur suddenly, others develop as part of a chronic condition and require ongoing management.”

Of course! ‘Itis’ means inflammation, while ‘neph’ means kidney. It’s amazing what you can remember learning in college over 50 years ago when you’re 72.

Hmmm, what do they mean by “many types of nephritis”? DoctorsHealthPress at doctorshealthpress.com/vital-organs/kidneys/types-nephritis-causes-symptoms-prevention/lists them for us:

1. Interstitial Nephritis                    

Interstitial nephritis is characterized by swelling between the tubules and kidneys. The kidney tubules reabsorb water and important substances from kidney filtration, and substances are secreted through urination.

Interstitial nephritis can be acute or chronic in nature. Acute interstitial nephritis is typically the result of an allergic reaction. Over 100 different medications cause interstitial nephritis, such as antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and proton pump inhibitors.

Non-allergic interstitial nephritis causes include high calcium levels, low potassium levels, and autoimmune disorders.

  1. Pyelonephritis

Acute pyelonephritis is a severe and sudden kidney infection. Consequently, the kidneys will swell, which may lead to permanent damage. Frequent occurrences are known as chronic pyelonephritis.

The infection will begin in the lower urinary tract in the form of a urinary tract infection (UTI). Bacteria enter the body through the urethra and spread to the bladder. At that point, bacteria will travel from the ureters to the kidneys.

  1. Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis refers to a range of kidney conditions that cause inflammation in the very small blood vessels in the kidneys, which are called glomeruli.

It is also called glomerular disease or glomerular nephritis. When the glomeruli become damaged, the kidney can no longer efficiently remove excess fluids and waste.

  1. Lupus Nephritis [Gail here: This is they type I recently wrote about.]

Lupus nephritis is inflammation of kidneys caused by the autoimmune disease known as systemic lupus erythematous (SLE)—also called lupus. This is where the body’s immune system targets its own tissues.

As many as 60% of lupus patients will later get lupus nephritis. The most common symptoms include dark urine, weight gain, high blood pressurefoamy urine, and the need for nighttime urination.

  1. IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease)

IgA (immunoglobulin A) nephropathy is also called Berger’s disease. The kidney disease occurs when the antibody IgA lodges within the kidneys.

Over time, this leads to local inflammation, which interferes in the kidneys’ ability to filter waste from the blood. It is a progressive disease that may lead to end-stage kidney failure.

  1. Alport Syndrome

Alport syndrome is an inherited disease caused by genetic mutations to the protein collagen. It can lead to kidney failure, hearing problems, and vision issues.

It will often run in families, and the severity is greater in men. Common symptoms include high blood pressure, protein in the urineblood in the urine, and swelling in the ankle, legs, feet, and around the eyes.

The genetic types of Alport syndrome include X-linked Alport syndrome (XLAS), autosomal recessive Alport syndrome (ARAS), and autosomal dominant Alport syndrome (ADAS).”

I usually move on to symptoms next but – as you can see – DoctorsHealthPress already took care of that for us. Thank you to DoctorsHealthPress.

Healthline (Yep, that’s the same Healthline that awarded SlowItDownCKD a place among the top six kidney disease blogs in both 2016 & 2017.) at https://www.healthline.com/health/acute-nephritic-syndrome#types offered more detail about the cause of several acute nephritis diseases:

Interstitial nephritis

In interstitial nephritis, the spaces between the kidney tubules become inflamed. This inflammation causes the kidneys to swell.

Pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney, usually due to a bacterial infection. In the majority of cases, the infection starts within the bladder and then migrates up the ureters and into the kidneys. Ureters are two tubes that transport urine from each kidney to the bladder.

Glomerulonephritis

This type of acute nephritis produces inflammation in the glomeruli. There are millions of capillaries within each kidney. Glomeruli are the tiny clusters of capillaries that transport blood and behave as filtering units. Damaged and inflamed glomeruli may not filter the blood properly. Learn more about glomerulonephritis.

What causes acute nephritis?

Each type of acute nephritis has its own causes.

Interstitial nephritis

This type often results from an allergic reaction to a medication or antibiotic. An allergic reaction is the body’s immediate response to a foreign substance. Your doctor may have prescribed the medicine to help you, but the body views it as a harmful substance. This makes the body attack itself, resulting in inflammation.

Low potassium in your blood is another cause of interstitial nephritis. Potassium helps regulate many functions in the body, including heartbeat and metabolism.

Taking medications for long periods of time may damage the tissues of the kidneys and lead to interstitial nephritis.

Pyelonephritis

The majority of pyelonephritis cases results fromE.coli bacterial infections. This type of bacterium is primarily found in the large intestine and is excreted in your stool. The bacteria can travel up from the urethra to the bladder and kidneys, resulting in pyelonephritis.

Although bacterial infection is the leading cause of pyelonephritis, other possible causes include:

  • urinary examinations that use a cystoscope, an instrument that looks inside the bladder
  • surgery of the bladder, kidneys, or ureters
  • the formation of kidney stones, rocklike formations consisting of minerals and other waste material

Glomerulonephritis

The main cause of this type of kidney infection is unknown. However, some conditions may encourage an infection, including:

  • problems in the immune system
  • a history of cancer
  • an abscess that breaks and travels to your kidneys through your blood

It certainly looks like there’s a lot more to nephritis than we’d thought.

Until next week,

Keep living your life!