The Dynamic Duo 

Sorry Batman, not yours. I’m writing about Chronic Kidney Disease and diabetes. For a decade, I’ve been told diabetes is the number one cause of CKD. Got it… and (as you know) CKD. Then I learned that CKD can cause diabetes. Ummm, okay, I guess that sort of makes sense. And then, oh my, I developed diabetes. But how? I’d never questioned how that worked before, but I certainly did now.

Let’s go back to the beginning here. First of all, what is diabetes? I included this information in SlowItDownCKD 2013:

“According to MedicalNewsToday at https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/diabetes:

‘Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia).’”

Guilty on all three counts as far as symptoms. It gets worse. I uncovered this fact in SlowItDownCKD 2014:

“According to Diabetes.co.uk at https://www.diabetes.co.uk/how-does-diabetes-affect-the-body.html,

‘The kidneys are another organ that is at particular risk of damage as a result of diabetes and the risk is again increased by poorly controlled diabetes, high blood pressure and cholesterol.’”

This is getting more and more complicated. But again, how is diabetes damaging my kidneys?

It seemed to me that I had just posted a fact about this on SlowItDownCKD’s Facebook page, so I checked. Yep, I did on September 7th.

“Did you know that high glucose levels can make your red blood cells stiffen? This hinders your blood circulation.”

And this affects the kidneys how? Let’s think about this a minute. Way back when I wrote What Is It and How Did I Get It? Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease, I included this information:

“A renal artery carries the blood, waste and water to the kidneys while a renal vein carries the filtered and sieved waste from the kidneys.”

The American Society of Hematology at http://www.hematology.org/Patients/Basics/ tells us there are four parts of the blood:

  1. Red blood cells
  2. White blood cells
  3. Plasma
  4. Platelets

Hmmm, so red blood cells compose one quarter of your blood and high glucose can make them stiffen. To me, that means a quarter of your blood will be working against you.  Not what we need… especially when we’re already dealing with Chronic Kidney Disease.

Back to my original question (again): How do high glucose levels affect the kidneys?

Thank you to the National Kidney Foundation at https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/Diabetes-and-Kidney-Disease-Stages1-4 for exactly the answer I was looking for:

  • Blood vessels inside your kidneys. The filtering units of the kidney are filled with tiny blood vessels. Over time, high sugar levels in the blood can cause these vessels to become narrow and clogged. Without enough blood, the kidneys become damaged and albumin (a type of protein) passes through these filters and ends up in the urine where it should not be.
  • Nerves in your body. Diabetes can also cause damage to the nerves in your body. Nerves carry messages between your brain and all other parts of your body, including your bladder. They let your brain know when your bladder is full. But if the nerves of the bladder are damaged, you may not be able to feel when your bladder is full. The pressure from a full bladder can damage your kidneys.
  • Urinary tract. If urine stays in your bladder for a long time, you may get a urinary tract infection. This is because of bacteria. Bacteria are tiny organisms like germs that can cause disease. They grow rapidly in urine with a high sugar level. Most often these infections affect the bladder, but they can sometimes spread to the kidneys.

I would say I’m heart… uh, kidney…broken about this development, but the truth is I’m not. I don’t like it; I don’t want it, but I can do something about it. I’d already cut out complex carbs and sugar laden foods in an abortive attempt to lose weight for my health. Well, maybe my daughter’s wedding on October 6th had something to do with that decision, too.

The point is, I’ve started. I’m aware of the carbohydrates in food and I’m learning how to control my intake of them… just as I’m aware that I have to break in the shoes for the wedding. Something new has to be gotten used to. I’ve had a head start.

Why the emphasis on carbs, you ask. I turned to my old favorite The National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases at https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/diet-eating-physical-activity/carbohydrate-counting  for help:

“When you eat foods containing carbohydrates, your digestive system breaks down the sugars and starches into glucose. Glucose is one of the simplest forms of sugar. Glucose then enters your bloodstream from your digestive tract and raises your blood glucose levels. The hormone insulin, which comes from the pancreas or from insulin shots, helps cells throughout your body absorb glucose and use it for energy. Once glucose moves out of the blood into cells, your blood glucose levels go back down.”

If you’ve got diabetes, your body either is not producing enough insulin or not interacting well with the insulin it is producing. Measuring my blood sugar levels when I awaken in the morning has shown me that when I’m sleeping – when I cannot help my blood sugar levels come down by eating protein or exercising, even in my dreams – is when I have the highest blood sugar. During the day I can keep it under control.

And that’s where my medication comes in. The usual – Metformin – can cause nausea, which I deal with more often than not, so that was out. However, a new medication on the market just might do the trick. It’s only been a few days, but I do notice my blood sugar upon waking is getting lower each day. This medication is not a panacea. I still have to be careful with my food, exercise daily, and sometimes counteract a high carb food with a protein. I’m not there yet, but I’m learning.

Until next week,

Keep living your life!

EPO Good, No, EPO Bad

In preparing for tonight’s TwitterChat, Mandy from Libre asked me about any medications I’d like to mention.  I immediately thought of EPO. I remember when I was first diagnosed and complained of fatigue, my nephrologist at the time talked about receiving EPO intravenously.  I think he said twice a month.  And I was horrified.  I didn’t know why; I just was.  It wasn’t the needle because I was used to that already from all the blood tests CKD patients take and the IVs I’d had for various procedures.  It just felt wrong, wrong way down in my gut.  Being a great believer in things happening for a reason whether we know the reason or not, I refused.  And then I refused again.  After reading the two articles from which I’ve taken excerpts for today’s blog, I’m glad I did.

Blood protein EPO involved in origin and spread of cancer

[PRESS RELEASE 5 December 2011] Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have demonstrated that a growth hormone, PDGF-BB, and the blood protein EPO are involved in the development of cancer tumours and that they combine to help the tumours proliferate in the body. These new preclinical findings offer new potential for inhibiting tumour growth and bypassing problems of resistance that exist with many drugs in current use. The results are published in the scientific journal Nature Medicine.
       

Yihai Cao Photo: John Sennet

Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, and is one of the most important research fields in the treatment of such diverse conditions as cancer, metastases, obesity, heart disease, stroke, diabetes and chronic inflammation. The process is also important in healthy individuals for wound healing, the menstrual cycle and other normal processes. Professor Yihai Cao and his team are researching into angiogenesis and its links to cancer and other diseases, and in the present study show the significant role played by a growth factor, PDGF-BB.

“EPO has several functions,” says Professor Yihai Cao. “It produces more blood and stimulates angiogenesis, and we have revealed the underlying mechanism. It also stimulates tumour angiogenesis by directly stimulating the proliferation, migration and growth of endothelial cells and their ability to form the so-called epithelial tube. PDGF-BB promotes the stimulation of extramedullary haematopoiesis, enlargement of the liver and spleen, which increases oxygen perfusion and protection against anaemia.”

The introduction of PDGF-BB in mice thus boosts erythropoietin production and the haematopoietic parameters. In addition, EPO may directly act on tumor cells to promote their growth and metastasis.

You can find the entire article at:  http://ki.se/ki/jsp/polopoly.jsp?l=en&d=130&a=133831&newsdep=130&utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitter . It is from Nature Medicine AOP 4 December 2011

Then I found a blog written by a doctor as a patient. This is part of that Wednesday, December 07, 2011 blog. You can read the entire blog entry at:  http://www.typepad.com/services/trackback/6a0133f61818b7970b0162fd805711970d

EPO: Lighting the Fires of Cancer

By Peter Laird, MD

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a natural hormone that mediates the production of red blood cells (RBC’s) that is primarily produced in the renal cortex and small amounts in the liver. Studies over the last decade evaluated the effects of  EPO in diverse populations at risk of anemia outside of the renal dialysis patients, especially in patients undergoing chemotherapy for a variety of cancers. Unfortunately, these studies revealed adverse survival with more rapidly progressive cancers and shortened survival. In addition, in the CKD population, patients were more likely to experience cardiovascular events and death bringing the CHOIR study to an early close as well.  The TREAT trial followed shortly with a higher risk of stroke for patients treated with EPO for CKD related anemia.

Many patients sustained with EPO for years on dialysis vocally protested the new FDA labelling changes and the removal of minimum Hb levels in the QIP. Despite the increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes with EPO and the suspected increased cancer risk for chemotherapy trials, the correction of anemia for many patients overcame the potential risks. However, a new study highlighed by Gary Peterson of RenalWEB sheds light on the role of EPO not only in promoting cancer, but it is actually involved in the development of cancers as well:

PDGF-BB modulates hematopoiesis and tumor angiogenesis by inducing erythropoietin production in stromal cells

As a cancer survivor in addition to my IgA nephropathy and dialysis, I have been very leery of EPO right from the time I first started on dialysis in 2007. My first confrontation with my health care team at dialysis came about when I refused to continue EPO shortly after beginning dialysis. In retrospect of current guidelines, I never needed EPO with a Hb over 12.0 with only iron infusions alone. The issue of adverse cardiovascular outcomes and now this new basic science information that EPO is involved in cancer formation leaves dialysis patients with hard choices. EPO prevents the need for blood transfusions and their associated complications, but at what price?

This brings up the subject of advocating for yourself.  You do NOT need to accept what a doctor tells you or recommends to you just because you are not a doctor and s/he is.  Refuse (unless it’s an emergency) and go home and research…or get a second opinion…or call another patient you trust to suggest another way of finding out if you do need this whatever it is you’re not comfortable with.

On the book front, you already know about tonight’s TwitterChat at 8-9 EST at WhatHowEarlyCKD, courtesy of Libre Clothing.  You do know about that, don’t you?  Come join us.  Bring your questions, comments and friends.  Let’s make this a lively hour.

Those of you living in Arizona, I’ll be looking forward to meeting you on Saturday, January 14th, from 1-3 at Bookman’s in Mesa.  The address is 1056 S. Country Rd.  C’mon down!

Until next week,

Keep living your life!

This is what early stage CKD looks like